North-Western Border and Borderland in the first half
of the 18th century as the object for Russian cartography

The usage the methodic to transferee object from old to resent maps
The most significant result could be achieved with transferring to modern map wide-range social-economical objects from old map. It helps us at the future comparing different information layers achieved from old maps. So that methodic should be demonstrate on the example of one map. It is map of Olonez uezds made by Akim Kleshnin in 1728. In the map the center of uyezd (Olonez city), two settlements under the factories (Petrovskie zavody, Konchezerskoy zavod), 23 churchyards, 99 centers of volosts, 549 villages were found.
It is very difficult to localized so numerous numbers of the frontier object, because from time there majority disappeared or changed there name. So it made first step of localization, map of Kleshnin was compared with modern map of Karelia republic15. At that process new methodic was used to verify localization of social objects. That methodic was at the comparing modern hydrography, place names, geographical names of tracts and height with names with social objects from old maps. 
The center of uyezd, the settlements under the factories, 20 pogosts, 53 centers of volosts, 190 villages was localized. Using hydrographic and toponymy information helped us to transfer 190 villages from “Map of Olonets uyezd” to modern map. Therefore, villages are the most difficult objects to localization; in many cases they were lost at modern map. From that point, localization of 190 villages from 590 is success. So interim maps should be used at that process to follow all changes at names and status of early villages. At that investigative process 23 monasteries and 4 hermitages was localized, so that centers of spiritual life could help us at the investigation process of their influence on the frontier territory. Using modern hydrography helped us to define on the modern maps district of working early 27 watermills. Location of some watermills by several ones gives us possibility suppose them as specialized in the timber industry. 
So our methodic based on the choosing social-economic objects on the old map and transportation social-economic objects to the modern geodesic bases. It helps us at studding wide-range of social-economical objects and understanding how investigated maps-sources are informative. 
Informatively of cartography sources of the first half of 18th century
Old maps could explain numerous questions about borderland infrastructure and social-economical development of the frontiers territory. However, the first map of Russian territory numerous objects could be demonstrated. There were mistakes with names of showed social objects or elements of relief the earth surface. That uncharted areas could be on the map from topography’s hurry, when they collected their information. 
The system of symbols was unified and it couldn’t provide social objects with supplementary information. It is impossible to find on the maps villages with chapels or to characterize the number of houses and churches in the centers of volosts. Those differences would be clear only after using different written sources to define numerous social characteristics of social information.
However, early map gives us answer about the numerous characteristics of frontier objects. After the investigating of road network on the northern part of “Map of Olonezkoy uyezd” we can find, that country roads connect local settlements on the borderland territory, roads combined with waterways, there was one country road to Northern part of Sweden / Finland. 
We can also judge about state interest to borderland territory through investigations of the road on the early maps. On the maps from Atlas of 1734 mail and country-tracks were showed, but on the latest Atlas of 1745 transportation network was showed very huge. It is quite essential information about frontier objects, but the investigation should be continued with data correlation from difference early maps and written sources. 
Conclusion
Finally, it should be mentioned that borderland territory was under the strong interest of Russian state cartography. Topographers fixed not only Russian social-economical objects, but also the abroad ones. Some information could not be discovered on civil maps had being the military secret or it could be fixed on the maps with different mistakes, so to be sure with social information of old maps one must verify them by written sources and other contemporary maps.
For future studying of map sources, it is necessary to provide the following: wide usage of Russian, Finnish and Swedish cartographic materials and scientific literature, investigate reasons of map’s generalization of information, use new information technologies to analyze old maps and locate particular objects. 

Sources
Аким Клешнин Ландкарта Олонецкого уезда, 1730 г. // отдел картографических материалов БАН, шифр VP I/3 
Граница: Понятие и термины [Электронный ресурс]. / http://www.strana-oz.ru/print.php?type=article&id=307&numid=7. – Загл. с экрана.
Новая и достоверная ныне Кексгольмского уезду ландкарта, 1727 г. // отдел картографических материалов БАН, шифр V PT / 1336
Положение мест между Санкт-Петербургом, Архангельском и Вологдой, 1745 г. // отдел картографических материалов БАН, шифр VP 1/ 321
Республика Карелия. Общегеографический региональный атлас. – М.: 439 ЦЭВКФ, 2002. – 168 с. 

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